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Zerbe Ed. Affective events theory as a framework for understanding third-party consumer complaints. Ashkanasy and Wilfred J. Ten years on pp. Coding emotions in complaint behavior: comparing the shaver et al. Overview: What have we learned? Ten years on. Healthy human cultures as positive work environments. Ashkanasy , Celeste P. Wilderom and Mark F. Peterson Ed. Organizational behavior: An emotions perspective. In Emotions in Organizational Behavior pp.
Hartel and Neal M. When east meets west: Managing Chinese enterprise relationships through guanxi-based diversity management. In Jawad Syed and Mustafa F. Pearman, Graeme and Hartel, Charmine Climate change: Are we up to the challenge? Kirsch, Christina and Hartel, Charmine E. Managing diversity, social inclusion and change in the workplace. Wijewardena, Nilupama , Hartel, Charmine E. A laugh a day is sure to keep the blues away: managers' use of humor and the construction and destruction of employees' resilience.
Japanese equal employment opportunity law: Implications for diversity management in Japan. In Mustafa F. Diversity in management in Thailand. Ozbilgin Ed. Intercultural competencies across cultures: Same or different? In Jawed Syed and Mustafa F. Positive Leadership. Human resources as manager of the human imprint. In Encyclopedia of human resources information systems pp. Overview: Emotions, ethics and decision-making. Role of affect and interactional justice in moral leadership. How to build a healthy emotional culture and avoid a toxic culture. Ashkanasy and Cary L. Cooper Ed. Building a climate of trust during organizational change: The mediating role of justice perceptions and emotion.
Overview: Functionality, intentionality and morality. In love at work. Panipucci, D. Positive disobedience: When norms prescribe the exclusion of dissimilar others. In Antonella Delle Fave Ed. Pizer, M. The positive impact of high quality LMX on career-related hope. Overview: Individual and organizational perspectives on emotion management and display.
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Employee / Organizational Communications
Ashkanasy and Charmine E. For better or worse: Organizational culture and emotions. Hartel , W. Zerbe and N. Ashakansy Ed. Understanding cross-cultural negotiation: A model integrating affective events theory and communication accommodation theory. Zerbe, W. A bounded emotionality perspective on work characteristics. Emotional experience of individualist-collectivist workgroups: Findings from a study of 14 multinationals located in Australia. Australia and online learning: Lessons for effective implementation. In Marcus Powell Ed. Overview: The effect of affect in organizational settings.
Organizational behaviour: An emotions perspective. In Charmine Hartel , Neal M. Ashkanasy, N. A bounded emotionality perspective on the individual in the organization. Hartel, C. What an emotions perspective of organizational behavior offers. Leadership and innovation : Surfacing synergies among constructs and theories.
Intelligent emotions management. Communication competence in cross-cultural business interactions. E Sharpe. F and Boyle, Maree V. A conceptual examination of the causal sequences of emotional labor, emotional dissonance and emotional exhaustion: The argument for the role of contextual and provider characteristics. Myths about emotions during change. Paterson, Jan M. An integrated affective and cognitive model to explain employees' responses to downsizing. What are the management tools that come out of this?
Managing emotions in a changing workplace. Ashkanasy , W. Zerbe and C. Hartel Ed. Zerbe, Wilfred , Hartel, Charmine E. Emotional labor and the design of work. Ayoko, O. The role of emotions and emotion management in destructive and productive conflict in culturally heterogeneous workgroups. Managing emotions in workplace relationships. Managing emotions in decision making. Wilson-Evered, E. A longitudinal study of workgroup innovation: the importance of transformational leadership.
In Myron D. Fottler , G. Savage and J. Blair Ed. Creating a climate for innovation: A participative approach. In Effective change management using action learning and action research: Concepts, frameworks, processes, applications pp. Cognitive determinants of expert decision making in air traffic control. A new approach to mental workload measurement in air traffic control. In Andrew R.
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Lowe and Brent J. Hayward Ed. Commentary: Reconciling research findings. Commentary: Emotions as mediators and moderators. J Hartel and Wilfred J. Commentary: Emotions as an organizing principle. Commentary: Emerging research agendas. In Emotions in the workplace: Research, theory, and practice pp. Emotions in the workplace: Research, theory, and practice.
Ashkanasy , C. Hartel and W. Commentary: The nature of emotions in organizations. Prince, C. Aeronautical decision making and consistency of crew behaviors: Implications for training. In Richard S. Jensen Ed. Journal of Management and Organization , 1 - 8. Academy of Management Proceedings , 1 : Journal of Business Research , 99 - Beamond, M. Management and Organization Review ,. Sendjaya, S. Personnel Review ,. Service Industries Journal , 37 : - Human Relations , 70 11 : - Moss, Simon A.
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology , 10 1 - 9. Fujimoto, Yuka and Hartel, Charmine E. Personnel Review , 46 6 : - Australian Journal of Management , 41 3 : - Journal of World Business , 51 4 : - Stress and Health , 33 4 : - The role of Machiavellianism in the relationship between authentic leadership and morality. Journal of Business Ethics , 1 : - Group and Organization Management , 39 6 : - Journal of Leadership and Management , 1 1 : 63 - Mahmud, Sharmin , Alam, Quamrul and Hartel, Charmine Mismatches in skills and attributes of immigrants and problems with workplace integration: a study of IT and engineering professionals in Australia.
Human Resource Management Journal , 24 3 : - British Journal of Management , 25 3 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 20 4 : - Wijewardena, Nilupama , Samaratunge, Ramanie and Hartel, Charmine Creating better employees through positive leadership behavior in the public sector. International Journal of Public Administration , 37 5 : - Australasian Journal of Information Systems , 18 3 : - International Journal of Human Resource Management , 25 7 : - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 12 4 : - Trau, Raymond N.
British Journal of Management. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources , 51 4 : - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 12 3 : - Australasian Marketing Journal , 21 1 : 43 - J Acculturation attitudes and affective workgroup commitment: evidence from professional Chinese immigrants in the Australian workplace. Asian Ethnicity , 14 2 : - Nyland, Chris , Hartel, Charmine E.
British Journal of Industrial Relations , 53 1 : - Social Responsibility Journal , 9 1 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 19 1 : 60 - Journal of Contemporary Asia , 42 4 : - International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 36 5 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 18 4 : - Hartel, Charmine and Arndt, Felix.
Journal of Management and Organization , 18 2 : - Australian Journal of Management , 38 1 : - Haertel, Charmine E. Academy of Management Learning and Education , 10 4 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 17 6 : - Brown, Kenneth G. Academy of Management Learning and Education , 10 2 : - Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources , 49 1 : 71 - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 9 4 : - Journal of Managerial Psychology , 25 8 : - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 9 2 : - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 9 1 : - Australasian Marketing Journal , 18 1 : 1 - 7.
Ramburuth, Prem and Hartel, Charmine E. Multicultural Education and Technology Journal , 4 3 : - Journal of Diversity Management , 5 4 : 19 - Journal of Brand Management , 17 4 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 16 1 : 16 - Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources , 47 3 : - Journal of Management and Organization , 15 3 : - Academy of Management Learning and Education , 8 1 : - Journal of Managerial Psychology , 24 3 : - Monash Business Review , 4 3 : 38 - European Journal of Management , 8 2 : - Gender Work and Organization , 15 3 : - Kimberley, Nell and Hartel, Charmine E.
Journal of Management and Organization , 14 2 : - Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources , 46 1 : 21 - Ayoko, Oluremi B.
Professor Charmine Hartel - Business School - University of Queensland
Small Group Research , 39 2 : - The Business Review, Cambridge , 9 2 : - Mahmud, S. Monash Business Review , 4 3 : 1 - Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal , 19 3 : - New York: Erlbaum, ]. American Journal of Psychology , 2 : - Research on Emotion in Organizations , 3 - The American Journal of Psychology , 2 : - Habib, M.
Asian Profile , 34 6 : - International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion , 1 3 : - Cross Cultural Management , 13 4 : - Commentary on Scherer et al's survey-study "Emotions in everyday life". Social Science Information: information sur les sciences sociales , 44 4 : - Minahan, Stella and Hartel, Charmine Creativity, Celebration and Play at the Bauhaus, Berlin, Lessons from history for contemporary marketers and arts organizations.
Tan, Jacintha A. Cross Cultural Management , 12 2 : 4 - Leo, W. Bennett, R. Industrial Marketing Management , 34 1 : 97 - The Australian Journal of Management , 29 2 : - Cross-Cultural Management , 11 4 : 4 - Black, Leeora D. Journal of Public Affairs , 4 2 : - J A model of the affective and cognitive events in expatriate assignments. Doing Business Across Borders Journal , 3 1 : 7 - Journal of Doing Business Across Borders , 3 1 : 17 - J What women can expect when undertaking expatriate assignments in Australia.
Cross Cultural Management , 11 1 : 3 - Fisher, Gregory B. Cross Cultural Management , 11 2 : 3 - Cross Cultural Management , 11 3 : 54 - Lloyd, Shannon L. Cross-Cultural Management , 11 4 : 60 - Doing Business Across Borders Journal , 3 1 : 54 - Fujimoto, Y. J Mentor The experience of Asian expatriates in Australia.
Journal of Doing Business Across Borders , 3 1 : 24 - Journal of Doing Business Across Borders , 3 1 : 7 - Trau, R. Elder, Ruth , Wollin, Judy , Hartel, Charmine , Spencer, Nancy and Sanderson, Wayne Hassles and uplifts associated with caring for people with cognitive impairment in community settings.
International Journal of Mental Health Nursing , 12 4 : - Jordan, Peter J. Academy of Management Review , 28 2 : - Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources , 41 1 : 36 - Fisher, G.
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Cross-Cultural Management , 10 4 : 4 - International Journal of Value-Based Management , 16 1 : 53 - International Journal of Organizational Analysis , 11 4 : - Applied Psychology- An International Review , 52 3 : - Hartel, Charmine Time Gradients. Journal of Management Inquiry , 11 3 : - Journal of Management , 28 3 : - Black, L.
Journal of Communication Management , 7 2 : - International Journal of Conflict Management , 13 2 : - Human Resource Management Review , 12 2 : - Leadership Quarterly , 13 5 : - Jordan, P. Academy of Management Review , 27 3 : - Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal , 3 2 : 1 - McDonald, L. John D. This distinctive American approach envisioned by Rockefeller, however, crumbled and this fascinating decade came to an end with the stock market crash that ushered in the Great Depression. Jobs disappeared, wages were cut, employer pension plans went bankrupt, and the misery of the times made workers psychologically ripe for unionization.
In place of the philosophy of mutual interests of employers and employees came an adversarial labor-management system under government aegis. Jersey Standard adopted one of the most forward-looking industrial relations programs in the nation, a model for what became known as the welfare capitalism movement of the s. He supported the principle of employee representation, but rejected unionism as its only form. This conference failed to adopt any statement of policy, but a second one elevated employee representation to a basic principle of American industrial relations. The fact that the recommendation was not enacted into law does not obscure the major contribution Rockefeller and King had made toward reshaping industrial relations along more progressive lines.
IRC was established to advance their concept of mutual gain through cooperation between management and employees. It advised on specific issues, but more importantly, it conducted in-depth industrial relations surveys at companies. Although it promoted nonunion representation, IRC always insisted that if and how employees were to be represented was to be determined by them.
Six thousand managers participated in its training programs and many of them became the chief HR officers of leading companies. The organization played a major role in the setting up of the U. Employment Service, the retirement system for railroad workers, and the Social Security Act of Although the Special Conference Committee SCC , formed in by ten leading companies and IRC were separate and independent groups, they were linked through their close Rockefeller ties and a common industrial relations philosophy. Known today as the Cowdrick Group, in honor of its former secretary, Edward S.
Cowdrick, it meets regularly, but now under the sponsorship of ORC. With the establishment of a separate organization for consulting activities, IRC efforts went solely into research and education. Kaufman concludes that the birth and development of IRC over the past three-quarters of a century is noteworthy on many counts.
It was the first IR consulting and research organization in this country. Where industrial relations had been regarded as of secondary importance and something to be handled by foremen and supervisors, its founding signaled a new conceptualization in which the management of labor is considered of strategic importance requiring executive attention and professional administration.
Looking over the course of the 20th century, one is impressed with the tremendous advances made in all aspects of employment and the conditions of labor. In preparation for the symposium, IRC had commissioned a number of papers on developments in the twentieth century in specific areas of industrial relations. By the 20th century, technological change, bringing with it greater capital intensity of production and economies of scale, together with expansion of markets, resulted in giant corporations replacing single proprietorships.
Workplace theory circa provided an intellectual and legal foundation for a largely unrestricted system of employer autocracy in the internal governance of the firm. This led to conflict and poor work performance. Two ways of changing the system were proposed. The first was to replace private ownership with socialism. The second was to have labor and management compromise their interests through collective bargaining with unions.
However, this often fostered an adversarial attitude leading to union pursuit of policies that effectively destroyed the basis for a long-run, mutual-gains relationship. Rockefeller, King, and Hicks, therefore, proposed a third way—recognize areas of activity in which the interests of labor and management coincide and build cooperation between the two parties. This could be achieved by fostering workplace cooperation, based on promoting identity of interest goal alignment in modern terms between the parties. IRC propagated this unity of interest philosophy and the following associated management practices:.
Professor Jacoby notes that between and , management introduced methods of coordination and control and staff departments to handle technical duties, but hiring and firing remained with foremen. Since this led to high turnover rates and labor unrest, some companies established employment departments to handle these functions. Efficiency, administration, specialization, uplift, and vocational guidance led companies to pay more attention to how they managed their employees. Labor market tightening, growing labor unrest, and intrusion of the federal government during World War I led more companies to create personnel departments and to raise their status.
Spurred by the creation of the Special Conference Committee, welfare capitalism emerged in the s. Most of these companies had employee representation plans, pensions, paid vacations, health insurance, and profit sharing, and sought to provide steady jobs, good pay, and fair treatment.
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IRC was part of this movement and its role was to provide research and consulting services. The Great Depression led to massive government intervention, including economic regulation and encouragement of trade unions. Under the influence of IRC, there was a resurgence of foreman training and provision of benefits, but that could not halt either the growth of unions, particularly in the mass production industries, or the spread of government regulation. Personnel management became important in operating coordinated corporate labor policies to make sure that they complied with government regulation and to deal with unions, and this became even truer during World War II.
The War Labor Board, moreover, allowed circumvention of wage controls through fringe benefits and there was an expansion in health, hospitalization, and pension benefits. The behavioral sciences grew in importance within HR and a gap opened between labor and employee relations, leaving the former responsible only for collective bargaining and contract administration. As the internal labor market became the key, HR headquarter staff grew and concentrated on management development, employee benefits, training, and communications.
In the s, however, the corporate financial function was elevated and HR suffered, as financial measures were hard to apply and HR was criticized for not being business oriented. Personnel managers received a respite in the s, as the stock market dropped, worker dissatisfaction heightened, the ability to open nonunion facilities increased, and government regulation of the workplace proliferated. Dealing with worker dissatisfaction and the application of new forms of work organization in new nonunion plants expanded the organizational development staffs within HR.
Labor relations became still less important as the role of local line managers in both union avoidance and work reform rose. In the s, HR departments became smaller and less influential, as oversight of federal regulations eased, unionism declined further, and the labor market loosened. Corporate restructuring and stronger alignment with demands for higher returns led companies to again view employees as costs and to allow line managers to assume greater control. To survive in this short-term organizational milieu, HR moved from an employee focus to a business orientation, but it remained a low status function.
Professor John F. Burton, Jr. Mitchell sees the development of employee benefits as one of the most important features of industrial relations in the 20th century. Their growth has been phenomenal: in , employee benefits paid for by employers and employer contributions to social insurance represented only 1. In the s, some progressive employers provided employee benefits. Depression trauma produced a general quest for security. Social security old age benefits were supplemented by privately negotiated defined-benefit pension plans, and they encouraged workers, particularly older ones, to remain with the firm.
Unable to obtain a national health insurance system, unions turned to negotiating health insurance coverage with employers. Nonunion firms followed suit and employer-provided health insurance mushroomed. From less than , covered in , the number jumped to 3. Employer-based health insurance, however, also causes job lock, as people are afraid of losing coverage. Tax efficiency, the fact that employer contributions are tax-deductible but employee ones not, led to a largely noncontributory private benefit system.
Benefits rose rapidly relative to wages and salaries, but there was some reversal of the trend in the late s, as a soaring stock market cut the cost of defined-benefit pensions and rising health care costs led to cost-containment efforts, including shifting some of the burden to employees. Both pensions and health benefits are more likely to be provided by larger than smaller firms and go to full-time workers than to part-timers. The anti-mobility effect of defined-benefit pensions has been diminished by a shift toward more portable defined-contribution arrangements, and there have been some moves in public policy toward making health insurance more portable.
Originally, physician opposition had blocked national health insurance, but that has evaporated. Other major nations have health insurance funds run by governments or quasi-public institutions. There is a paradox in our compensation system: in Europe, where labor mobility is low, the external funding arrangements for benefits are compatible with mobility, but in the U.
In this paper, Professor Mitchell defines compensation as payouts of cash, financial assets or services directly to the worker, whether that payment is current or deferred. Historically, there have been four types of compensation arrangements: 1 time-based wages; 2 social welfare benefits, including pensions and health insurance; 3 explicit incentive programs, individual and group; and 4 incentive programs that involve employee assumption of organizational risk.
In the pre-New Deal period, scientific management heavily influenced pay structure and pay was set based on job descriptions, plus a reliance on incentives. Some large firms recognized the implicit incentive of paying above the going rate, a practice termed efficiency wages. A few companies practiced profit sharing. The Great Depression dramatically altered compensation policy, as unions began to play a major role in pay setting.
Union policy and the spread of the human relations approach, stressing nonpecuniary motivation, worked against incentives. The need for higher productivity during World War II provided renewed support for incentives, but with the unions having a say in their operation. The quest for security led to the Employment Act of and union demands for a guaranteed annual wage GAW.
Escalator clauses protecting against declines in real wages were injected into collective agreements. As membership declined, union influence on compensation diminished and in the s unions acquiesced to risk-sharing plans. Data show the trend toward more flexible pay arrangements, with 7 to 10 million workers receiving stock options in According to a Chamber of Commerce survey, over 80 percent of respondent companies had k tax-favored savings plans. Generally, compensation has shifted towards the pay-for-performance emphasis of the s.
Professor Leonard observes that employers who discriminate impose costs on benevolent ones, since their actions can provoke laws and judicial decisions regulating the behavior of all employers that limit the discretion of nondiscriminatory employers to deal with discrimination in their workplaces. Absent a union, an employer has no one with whom to discuss issues and no way to preserve any resulting agreement from legal challenge.
Affinity groups for black, Asian, Hispanic, and female employees that exist at some companies might provide a mechanism for employee voice on equal employment subjects. In contrast with unions and collective bargaining, there is no support in the law for a parallel institution for demographic bargaining, and so EEO disputes are channeled into the legal system. The idea that an employee has a right not to be subject to discrimination is of relatively recent vintage.
The United States welcomed immigrants and women into the labor market, but it was not illegal to discriminate against them.
Discrimination on the basis of race was prevalent. In the South, the labor force was totally segregated and in the North, most blacks were relegated to jobs at the lowest rungs of the occupational ladder.